A dissertation submitted
in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for
the degree of
DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
CALIFORNIA CENTER FOR
AFFILIATED with ST. CHARLES
@ The human body is
a great formative masterpiece created by God. Our human body, created by
God is beautiful as well as fragile and weak. The human body, degraded
by the fall induced by Satan, began to have physical pain, mental(psychological)pain,and
spiritual pain. Pain became one of man's main problems. .
when we study the theology of pain and investigate the origin of human
pain, we discover that it is impossible to separate pain from its relationship
with God. Human pain was@
known by Jesus who has
both the divine and human nature. Therefore his experience in pain gives
us insight into various aspects of human pain. Jesus also taught us about
healing from and countermeasures against pain. This dissertation will start
from the general study of pain. Then it will talk about the pain of Jesus.
Thirdly, it will talk about the ultimate pain Jesus suffered, the pain
leading to death, that is the pain Jesus suffered on the cross.
@Therefore, the order
of this dissertation will be as follows : Ch.1 on human pain. Ch. 2 on
the pain of Jesus. And
Ch. 3 on the pain of the cross of Jesus.
@And it concludes by
saying that the healing of pain is not impossible, and the key to the problem
lies in the cross of Jesus.
@As a contemporary issue,
the author wants to point out that there is a limit to what modern medicine
can solve, and draw attention to the healing brought about by the cross
of Jesus, and the need to trust in him.
@Lastly, the author
wrote this dissertation out of deep gratitude from the real experience
of being healed by the cross, and also healed from a serious illness.
@At the same time, the
author thought that this dissertation might help those who were suffering
from physical pain, mental(psychological)pain, and spiritual problems.
@@ 1. Physical Pain@@@
@What is a human being?
Human beings cannot be explained if we do not talk about God. Man is constantly
seeking after eternal things. Man was thus created by God. Futthermore,
man consists of flesh and bone, that is, merely material things.
@But, life was breathed
into the flesh and bone, making it a true human being. Man by having a
relationship with God, became a meaningful being. It is meaningless to
consider the existence of man without thinking about his relationship with
@By denying the relationship
with God, man also denies his own existence. This leads to confusion and
@A human being who is
not aware of his human responsibilty is not only losing his meaning of
existence, but also becoming disqualified to be a human being. Man is a
creature and object who is aware of his own responsibility, and carries
@From the view of constitution,
the human body is a wonder and full of mystery. Even doctors cannot understand
the human body fully. The reason being that the human body is not made
by human hands, but is created by God. The human body cannot be understood
solely according to its constituents, but should be considered together
with its inalienable soul and spirit.
@When we think about
the birth of the human body, the mechanism itself is very mysterious. Besides,
our understanding of the birth of the human body depends on the extent
of present medical knowledge. To explain its birth, it is impossible to
ignore the existence of almighty God who created man and who give birth
to the human body.
components consist of intelligence, emotion and volition, all these three
aspects being deeply intertwined and united in a person.
@Regarding the pain
from illness, we know it by experience to a certain extent. Because when
we feel sick, we are aware of@various kinds of pain and experience symptoms
@What is pain? To a
human being, pain is the signal of life and the testimony of living.When
human beings lose the feeling of pain, their existence is in danger. Human
activities cease and@ death begins to draw near.
@We can define pain
as the feeling of suffering beyond the limit of endurance. Pain is the
"painful" subjective experience felt which cannot be expressed
and transmitted fully to another person.
@Human response to pain
is much more sensitive, conplicated and minute than animals' response to
pain. Pain eradicates the freedom of the human body, and controls the will
and emotion of the human being. It manipulates human freedom and exhausts
and upesets human will. Pain affects and changes human personality.
@The joyous gospel which
delivers us from pain is the real healing of physical pain. Jesus resurrected
Lazarus,@Jairus' daughter, and the widow's son. In this way, Jesus healed
even death -- the usually "unhealable" disease --and brought
life to the dead.
@The Bible guarantees
and promises that all pain will be taken away and all illness will be healed.@@
@@ 2. Pain of the Mind
@What is the mind? The
mind operates in a complicated fashion. The mind controls the intelligence,
emotion and volition of man. It also is deeply connected with the soul.
The close relation of the mind and the brain is a fact not to be denied.
However, it is true that the Bible teaches that the human mind is also
created by God. The function of the human mind is understood by human emotions
expressed through the whole body. We can also know about the function of
the mind through human social activity and artistic expression. However,
we do not understand the inner working of the human mind.
@Where is the mind?
Man possesses a mind. However, as the existence of the mind goes, we only
know that there is a close relationship between it and the body, and there
is not much progress beyond that. The subject of the existence of the mind
is still a puzzle today. We cannot begin to comprehend the problem of the
human mind without explanation by way of God. So much so, that the subject
of the mind cannot be comprehended by human thinking and explanation, that
is to say, it cannot be explained by human ability. It is a subject belonging
to the dimension beyond human capacity, which is to say, it belongs to
the dimension of God.
@The personality defiled
by sin, if once sanctified by God, will be transformed into a great and
exalted personality. The image of God will be seen as bright and noble
in the man who possesses this personality. Freud described the human mind
as a psychological device, i.e. a special "ego" device which
is working inside the human heart. The Bible describes this ego as being
defiled by sin, and as a brutal and dangerous thing in man. Man is troubled
by this ego.
@Human conscience is
a very noble thing which accurately shows the human quality of a particular
person. The noble nature and dignity of the person is revealed by his conscience.
Therefore, conscience and the human heart are not separable. We know that
all races have a concept and term for conscience. Conscience, as the index
of the basis for proper human living, constantly proclaims a moral law.
Moreover, conscience shows that human beings should obey God and that it
is safe to follow God. Conscience enables human beings to constantly make
the right decision, to avoid evil ways and draw near to God. At this point
we have to emphasize the importance of human conscience following the Law
of God. However, the conscience is free to choose whether to actively follow
the Law of God or not. Here, it is important to point out the importance
of choice in the human conscience.@
@First of all, we should
approach pain from a physiological aspect. Since man does not like pain,
he is affected by the painful experience both physically and psychologically.
As for pain of the soul, it has to do greatly with sin. Human beings experience
the feeling of guilt leading to@confession of sin through pain of the
mind. God uses pain of the mind to urge man to repent of his sin. In a
certain sense, although it might be an overstatement, pain of the heart
could even be considered as the vengeance of God on sin. Accordingly, pain
is an extreme act that God uses to motivate and enable man to realize his
@Sometimes, pain of
the heart comes from our own hearts to bother and torture us. On the other
hand, in some cases, it comes from God.
@Pain of the soul is
like a fire, attacking man relentlessly, burning down everything and drawing
us to the bottom of a hell of pain and distress.
@Jesus, who shed his
blood on the cross for us human beings, healed our pain of the soul. Therefore,
anyone who believes in Him can have his pain of the soul healed.
@@ 3. Pain of the Soul
@According to Plato,
the human soul exists before the human body. However, we cannot say that
Plato understood fully about the soul. It is impossible to discuss the
issue of the soul without discussing its relation to God.
@The soul not only has
a very deep meaning, its existence is@very impotant to the human being.
When we have a relationship with God, it arouses our concern regarding
the soul. When a person dies, the soul departs from the body. The body
returns to the dust, where as the soul returns to be with God. The human
body and soul are one. God created the human being with earth, and breathed
life into his nostrils. Thus, man became a living creature.
@The human soul affects
emotion, deepens thought, and produces ideas. Furthermore, the soul gives
human being wishful thinking, and gives the human conscience the function
to judge good and bad. The subconsciousness and consciousness in human
soul are like the two wheels in a bicycle. The two match each other to
work well and bring great blessings to man.
@Our human soul became
worn out, weakened, and declined when it was stirred up, shaken, and knocked
down by various daily phenomena, incidents and problems. It is God and
not human efforts, who restores and vitalize the declining soul. The absence
of a relationship with God gives birth to the problem of the soul.
@We human beings, when
confronted with pain of the soul, cannot escape by closing our eyes, but
must honestly and straightforwardly face the reality of our pain. The issue
is how we deal with the pain. When we admit the pain of the soul as pain,
the way to healing will open by itself.
@Pain of the soul constantly
brings anxiety and fear to man. Yet pain of the soul produces much more
serious and deeper problems than those of physical pain and psychological
pain. The value of having pain is that by suffering, man's experience is
broadened so he can rationally recognize@the sorrow experience by others.
Pain also brings about the desire to sympathize, be compassionate, and
help those in pain.
@Regarding pain of the
soul, man can only ascertain it based on the scope of what he knows, thereby
making it difficult for him to grasp the real meaning of the pain. However,
pain provides us with the best opportunity to seriously think of oneself,
and one's existence. Man agonizes over pain of the soul. This pain will
not cease until we encounter God. By God, we begin to be@healed and delivered
from the pain.
@Pain of the soul often
deprives a person of some good aspects of his character and personality.
And the Devil draws out various evil and sin from inside him to cause considerablly
bad influence on others. We human beings should establish our dependence
on God through God, and with faith, be equipped with God's armor, and not
fall into the Devil's snare.
@@@1. Physical Pain
@The pain of Jesus was
announced beforehand. In order to save mankind, the Son of God could not
but suffer. The pain of Jesus is constantly accompanied by His blood. Besides,
the pain did not come from His own blood, but came from the order of God.
In other words, it is the pain intended to save us from the hand of sin
@Jesus prophesied his
suffering, and also asserted that pain was not the end, victory whould
soon follow. To Jesus, suffering was a mission, a mission that he should
not avoid. The pain of Jesus was for the execution and fulfillment of God's
plan on one hand, and was absolute necessary for us human beings on the
@Jesus did not only
receive physical pain. He also suffered psychologically and spiritually.
Namely, He was scorned, insulted, spit on, and flogged, before being killed
on the cross.
@Among the scenes of
Jesus' suffering, in various respects, the most deeply impressive thing
for Christian imagination is the crown of thorns. This tells us how the
suffering of Jesus is really an abnormality, and how violent and selfish
the cruelty is. The punishment of wearing a crown of thorns is one of the
sufferings afflicted on Jesus, and a cruel one at that. For those who were
present at the scene, it was unbearable to watch. Such a horror it would
arouse that they would prefer to cover their eyes. However, to those who
believed in Jesus, there was joy amidst sadness. That is to say that the
crown of thorns was accompanied by God's tacit consent, and it is an important
factor in God's plan.. Therefore, the crown of thorns is the evidence of
one of the sufferings of Jesus' sacrifice.
@One of the other cruel
punishment execyted on Jesus was flogging. This flogging was also a very
cruel act which brought about pain almost inexpressible by word or pen.
The pain of each lash of the whip surely was equal to death itself. The
flogging Jesus received was the most cruel tool of torture received by
man. Each lash of the whip added unbearable pain, and continued to make
him swoon, or to be more exact, to bring him one step closer to death.
@Of course, this was
the panishment of flogging which was meant for us mankind, now received
by the Son of God vicariously to deliver us from this pain.
@The thrust of the spear
at Jesus was the thrust inflicted to his death. If we gaze at it closely,
we will discover that it affected the physical pain of Jesus.@@
@Jesus received intense
and severe temptation from the Devil. Ordinarily, when human beings fast,
physically they are weakened, and in turn they are also psychologically
weakened. In Jesus' case, he certainly was weakened physically, but because
he fasted for prayer's sake, he received spiritual power by fasting and
confronted Satan's temptation. And yet, in fact, through trial by Satan,
Jesus did suffer psychological pain.
@Jesus, on one hand,
received popularity and fame from a lot of people, yet at same time, he
received numerous blunt and reproving criticisms and censures from the
Pharisees, scribes, and elders. He suffered considerable psychological
pain from this bad treatment.
@Jesus was welcomed
and blessed by a lot of people, but the people in his hometown Nazareth
did not welcome or bless him. This was a very strange thing. These people
hurt Jesus psychologically.
@When Lazarus died,
Jesus, with tears in his eyes, showed a love which was super human. We
get a glimpse of Jesus' psychological agony here.
@Jesus did not go through
regular legal proceedings, but received secret and unjust trials. This
gave Jesus a severe blow. First of all, He received a hearing full of bias
from Ananias. Secondly, he received a trial from Pontius Pilate which caused
the worst situation, i. e. letting the Jews put Jesus on the cross. Next,
Jesus received a trial from the foolish and corrupted King Herod.@
@In this way, Jesus
suffered deep psychological pain and a great many sacrificial hardships
both externally and internally. Jesus suffered like this to show us human
beings by his own experience how we could endure hardships.
@@@3. Spiritual Pain
@Let us consider the
great spiritual pain in Jesus' earthly life, i. e. His agonizing prayer
in Gethsemane, betrayal by Judas, and denial by Peter.
@The garden of Gethsemane
was the place of Jesus' most painful prayer. He was obedient to the will
of God. Although, the stressful prayer in Gethsemane was prompted by God,
nevertheless, it was terribly painful for Jesus. And this struggle in prayer
in Gethsemane was indispensable to us human beings.
@Jesus devoted himself
to intense prayer in Gethsemane in order to wipe away the pain which was
caused by the heavy cross on his whole body. In order to bear this burden
of the cup full of terror, Jesus prayed fervently with sweat like drops
of blood. And when Jesus wanted support from the beloved disciples, he
could not get it. Therefore, Jesus drank up the painful cup all by himself,
because he was absolutely obedient to God's command and will.
@God kept silent when
Jesus prayed. God kept silent because the prayer in Gethsemane was the
barrier that Jesus had to overcome and an indispensable factor in God's
plan. It was stressful for Jesus, but for the sake of the beloved Son,
God kept silent. Although God kept silent, he did not forget to give due
consideration to his love for Jesus. God sent an angel to encourage and
invigorate Jesus. Finally, Jesus was led to the conclusion to follow God's
will through the agonizing prayer. When Jesus' prayer reached the heart
of God and he understood God's will,@the cup of God was transformed for
him into the cup of glory, and it became a great privilege granted by God.
@Next, the betrayal
by Judas was a very sad and painful thing for Jesus. Jesus warned him over
and over again, pointing out the betrayal directly by His words. But, Judas
rejected stubbornly even when Jesus painstakingly showed grief and urged
him to repent of his sin. In spite of the loving guidance of the Lord Jesus
urging him to repent, Judas perversely remained in sin.
@Judas betrayed his
dear Lord Jesus in a mean way -- by a kiss, normally an act of respect
and love. Although Jesus tried many times to awaken Judas' sleeping conscience,
stubbornly Judas did not wake up, but drove himself to the judgement seat
of the White Throne by ending his own remorseful and tearful life, thus
separating himself from the Lord Jesus forever. Judas did not choose the
way of salvation by repentance. On the contrary, he chose to destroy himself
by committing suicide. The death of Judas added to Jesus' life an unforgettable
sorrowful and painful page.
@In Peter's walk with
Jesus, his denial of Jesus left a big and serious stain on his splendid
ministry. The blunder of denial by Peter, a leading disciple, originated
in his failure to grasp the true meaning of Jesus' important mission from
God. Peter's awful decision to deny Jesus originated in his fear of men.
Peter gradually felt the pricks of conscience. Jesus' heart was intensely
hurt by Peter's denial.
@However, Peter, unlike
Judas who remained unrepentant and chose the way of self-destruction by
committing suicide, was restored by changing his mind at length with the
help of Jesus.
@The clue to his restoration
was, in the first place, Jesus' love towards Peter. Peter was led to repentance
due to Jesus' love.
@Secondly, Peter's tears
shed for Jesus changed him. These tears were the tears of repentance as
well as the tears of love towards Jesus. Peter's tears strengthened his
confession of faith and reaffirmed his commitment.
@@@1.Pain of the Cross
@Lastly, let us consider
the climax of pain -- the pain of the cross of Jesus.
@The cross originated
from the love of God. The cross was motivated by the love of God to save
sinners from perishing. The basis of Pauline theology is exaltation of
the cross with agape love as its foundation.
@It is evident that
the cross provided the power of mission for Paul. The cross of Jesus presents
a far-reaching redemption. The profundity of the cross is due to the cross
@By way of the cross
of Jesus, the ruptured relationship with God was restored, the severed
pipeline to God repaired, and the broken Adamic fellowship restored. To
be crucified means to experience the death of Jesus together with him,
that is to say, to experience the cross together with Jesus, and to take
part in Jesus' death. That God put Jesus on the cross means that Jesus
took our pain as his own pain, and bore it on the cross. Jesus was cruelly
put on a cross that wounded him physically and hurt him greatly, for mankind's
salvation and deliverance from sin.@
@How painful was the
cross of Jesus! It gnawed at Jesus' body and torn it apart. The pain made
him sometimes cry out in sorrow, sometimes entreat God for the sins of
man, sometimes feel thirsty and murmur due to the pain all over his body,
and then utter the word of relief when he finished his mission. Finally,
he committed his total being into the Father's hands and passed away.
@The cross of Jesus
did not end in pain. He was lowered from the cross, buried, and was resurrected
on the third day. Death was conquered on the cross by the fact than Jesus
was resurrected. Pain was also conquored. Therefore, the cross of Jesus
is triumphant over all sorts of pain.
@@@2. Victory Won
by the Cross
@The cross of Jesus
healed the pain of man. It brought about great healing effects over physical,
psychological and spiritual pain, and brought victory over pain. The cross
also removed pain by dealing with its cause, i. e. sin. Since the cross
has a healing effect on all sorts of pain, it becomes the abundant source
of healing for our souls. The life of Jesus was breathed into our body
because we received new life, due to the redemptive blood. Our body, mind,
and soul are revitalized and are kept from illness. Our physical and spiritual
health are also maintained. Therefore, all of pain can be healed due to
the cross of Jesus.
@The cross of Jesus
is the reliable means of healing of illness and pain. The healing of the
cross also reaches the human ego.
@The cross of Jesus
is alive due to Jesus' resurrection. The reason being that by dying on
the cross, Jesus gave his life to us. By his resurrection, the atonement
on the cross is at work and brings about the great blessed gospel for us.
Peter earnestly stated that we were healed by the wounds of the whip on
@Through Jesus, our
enmity was not only removed; it was buried due to the cross. The cross
of Jesus also possesses the power of reconciliation because we were reconciled
to the rival who held enmity toward us.
@In this way, the cross
of Jesus is the great work and sacrifice of love to man. We should never
forget how the power of the cross has revived us.
@The problem of pain
is inescapable for us. Being human, physical, psychological and spiritual
pain attack us continually throughout our lives. However, healing of the
pain is not impossible. The way to healing is ready. Jesus Christ holds
the key to the solution of man's pain. That is to say, we are healed due
to the cross of Jesus. His cross is sufficient not only for the healing
of past pains, but also for the healing of pains occurring in the present
@The author wants to
stir up people's thinking by pointing out the limits of both modern Western
and Oriental medicine, and let more people know about the healing brought
about by the cross of Jesus Christ.
@I want to emphasize
the physical, psychological and spiritual healing of Jesus' cross which
is working together with modern medicine, or to be exact, which is dismissing@modern
@Finally, I want to
conlude this dissertation by remembering and praying for those who are